LinkedIn Share Share on Twitter Share on Facebook New research published in the European Journal of Personality has found that some personality traits are connected to how long and how well people sleep.“Sleep is very dynamic and biologically regulated, yet is also a personal characteristics,” said study author Zlatan Krizan, a professor of psychology at Iowa State University.“Uncovering which personality features predict the nature and rhythm of our sleep is important from a theoretical perspective as well as clinical. Plus I have to admit that my life-long insomnia motivated me find what sleep may show about who we are.” Email Pinterest The researchers analyzed data from 382 individuals who participated in the Midlife Development in the U.S. Study. The study included two initial assessments of basic personality traits. A few years later, the participants wore actigraph sleep monitoring devices and provided daily evaluations of their sleep quality for one week.The findings indicated that two of the Big Five personality traits were related to sleep quality. The researchers found that more neurotic and less conscientious individuals tended to have more disturbances during their sleep. More neurotic individuals also tended to have greater variability in how long they slept.“How a person sleeps is partially reflective of their personality constitution. For example, individuals more prone to negative emotions and difficulties with self-control had more variable sleep from one night to the next, which may point to important everyday routines (or the lack thereof) that could be producing such ups and downs,” Krizan told PsyPost.“One cannot change one’s personality just like that, but can identify ways in which to get out of one’s own way!”The study — like all research — includes some limitations. The study relied on cross-sectional data, making it difficult to determine the direction of causality. In other words, it is unclear whether personality impacts sleep or whether sleep impacts personality.“Exactly how personality intersects with sleep is still relatively unknown,” Krizan said. “Most research is based on questionnaires, so more studies like this one where more objective methods are used, as well as where real-life sleep is sampled are necessary to further our understanding.”“Moreover, personality is likely to matter for the makeup of the sleep episode themselves, so leveraging modern sleep-monitoring technology will be critical.”The study, “Personality and Sleep: Neuroticism and Conscientiousness Predict Behaviourally Recorded Sleep Years Later“, was authored by Zlatan Križan and Garrett Hisler.
By Andrew DownieSAO PAULO, Brazil (Reuters) – Few national teams have experienced the ups and downs of Brazil over the last five years but the good news for fans of the Selecao is that they are ascendant as Russia approaches.Brazil won the 2013 Confederations Cup, hammering an all-conquering Spain side 3-0 in the final. A year later they were humiliated 7-1 at home by Germany in the World Cup semi-finals and early exits at the Copa America in 2015 and 2016 deepened the gloom.But the improvement since Tite took over as coach in June 2016 has been remarkable and Brazil are now joint favourites to win a record sixth World Cup.Much of that credit goes to the wily coach, who has instilled a sense of purpose in a team that looked lost under his predecessor Dunga.Tite has retained only seven of the 23 players who failed on home soil four years ago, with Neymar, Marcelo, Dani Alves, Fernandinho, Thiago Silva, Willian and Paulinho among those likely to make the final 23.The central defence has been shored up with Marquinhos and Miranda, and Brazil under Tite have conceded just five goals in 19 games.The midfield has a balance of solid and creative players, with Casemiro providing the backbone, Paulinho capable of going box-to-box, and Renato Augusto offering some spark.Up front Tite has an embarrassment of riches, with Neymar, Gabriel Jesus and Philippe Coutinho the likely starters with able back-up on the bench from speedy wingers Willian and Douglas Costa.Those players helped Brazil to become the first team to qualify for Russia with a record string of nine successive wins, but they must take care to rein in any euphoria.Brazil have historically done better at World Cups when they fly off hated rather than feted by their own press and fans.In 1970, 1994 and 2002, the Selecao left home under a cloud only to silence their doubters and lift the cup.In 1982 and 2006, it was the opposite, as teams headed to Europe expecting to canter to victory.Tite is nothing if not pragmatic and he has worked overtime to ensure his players are focused on the task at hand.On the field his work has been exemplary, as 15 wins in 19 games prove. How he prepares them off it may be almost as important.